任选9场

任选9场

免疫检测基础知识

时间:2019-12-13 09:48    浏览:

免疫检测基础知识

 

SHIYIZHONGMIANYICEDING。MIANYICEDING(immunoassay,IA)SHIYINGYONGMIANYIXUEJISHUCEDINGBIAOBENDEFANGFA。ZAILINCHUANGJIANYANZHONGZHUYAOTONGGUOKANGYUANKANGTIFANYINGJIANCETIYEZHONGDEKANGTIHUOKANGYUANXINGWUZHI。

1.1 KANGYUAN

  KANGYUANSHINENGZAIJITIZHONGYINQITEYIXINGMIANYIYINGDADEWUZHI。KANGYUANJINRUJITIHOU,KECIJIJITICHANSHENGKANGTIHEYINQIXIBAOMIANYI。ZAIMIANYICEDINGZHONG,KANGYUANSHIZHINENGYUKANGTIJIEHEDEWUZHI。NENGZAIJITIZHONGYINQIKANGTICHANSHENGDEKANGYUANDUOWEIFENZILIANGDAYU5000DEDANBAIZHI。XIAOFENZIHUAHEWUZAIYUDAFENZIDANBAIZHIJIEHEHOUNENGYINQIJITICHANSHENGTEYIXINGKANGTIDE,CHENGWEIBANKANGYUAN(hapten)。LIRUMOUXIEJISU、YAOWUDENG。KANGYUANDEFANYINGXINGQUJUEYUKANGYUANJUEDINGCU(antigenic determinant),HUOCHENGWEIBIAOWEI(epitope)。YIGEKANGYUANFENZIKEDAIYOUBUTONGDEJUEDINGCU。

1.2 KANGTI

任选9场 1.2.1 KANGTIDEJIEGOU

  KANGTISHINENGYUKANGYUANTEYIXINGJIEHEDEMIANYIQIUDANBAI(immunoglobulin,Ig)。IgFENWULEI,JIIgG、IgA、IgM、IgDHEIgE。YUMIANYICEDINGYOUGUANDEIgZHUYAOWEIIgGHEIgM。IgYOULIANGGEQINGLIAN(L)HELIANGGEZHONGLIAN(H)DEDANTIZUCHENG。IgDEQINGLIANSHIXIANGTONGDE,YOUκ(kappa)HEλ(Lambda)LIANGZHONGXINGBIE。WULEIIgDEZHONGLIANJIEGOUBUTONG,ZHEIJUEDINGLETAMENDEKANGYUANXINGYEBUTONG。IgGHEIgMDEZHONGLIANFENBIECHENGWEIγ(gamma)LIANHEμ(mu)LIAN。

 

任选9场   ZHONGLIANHEQINGLIANDENDUANDEANJISUANPAILIESHUNXUYINGEZHONGKANGTIERYI,CHENGWEIKEBIANQU,FENBIEYONGVHHEVLBIAOSHI。LIANGZHEGOUCHENGKANGTIDEKANGYUANJIEHEBUWEI,ZHIYUXIANGYINGDEKANGYUANJUEDINGCUPIPEI,FASHENGTEYIXINGJIEHE,SHIKANGTIZHUANYIXINGJIEHEKANGYUANDEJIEGOUJICHU。

  IgGKEBEIMUGUADANBAIMEIFENJIEWEISANGEQUDUAN,QIZHONGLIANGGEXIANGTONGDEQUDUANCHENGKANGYUANJIEHEPIANDUAN(Fab)。MEIGEFabDOUBAOCUNJIEHEKANGYUANDENENGLI,DANZHIYOUYIGEKANGYUANJIEHEWEIDIAN,SHIDANJIADE,YUKANGYUANJIEHEHOUBUCHUXIANNINGJIHUOCHENDIAN。LINGYIQUDUANCHENGFcDUAN,WUKANGTIHUOXING,DANJUYOUIgGTEYOU

DEKANGYUANXING。

  IgGKEBEIWEIDANBAIMEIFENJIEWEILIANGGEPIANDUAN,YIGEFabSHUANGTI,CHENGF(ab')2,NENGHELIANGGEXIANGTONGDEKANGYUANJIEHE;LINGYIPIANDUANLEISIFc,SUIHOUBEIFENJIECHENGXIAOFENZIDUOTAI,WUSHENGWUHUOXING。

  IgMSHIYOUWUGEDANTIZUCHENGDEWUJUTI,HAN10GEZHONGLIANHE10GEQINGLIAN,JUYOU10GEKANGYUANJIEHEJIA,YOUYUKONGJIANWEIZHIDEYINGXIANG,ZHIBIAOXIANWEIWUGEKANGYUANJIEHEJIA。IgMFENZILIANGYUEWEI900000,IgGFENZILIANGYUEWEI150000。

任选9场 JITIBEIWEISHENGWUGANRANHOU,XIANCHANSHENGIgMKANGTI,RANHOUCHANSHENGIgGKANGTI。JINGGUOYIDUANSHIJIAN,IgMKANGTILIANGZHUJIANJIANSHAOERXIAOSHI,ERIgGKANGTIKEZHANGQICUNZAI,ZAIJIBINGQUANYUHOUKECHIXUSHUNIANZHIJIU。

IgMKANGTIYIBANWEIBAOHUXINGKANGTI,JUYOUMIANYIXING。YINCIIgMKANGTIDECEDING,DUIMOUXIECHUANRANBINGRUJIAXINGGANYANYOUJIAOGAODELINCHUANGZHENDUANJIAZHI。

 

1.2.2  KANGTIDECHANSHENG

  JITISHOUKANGYUANCIJIHOU,BLINBAXIBAOCHANSHENGXIANGYINGDEKANGTI。HANYOUKANGTIDEXUEQINGCHENGWEIKANGXUEQING(antiserum)。MEIYIXIBXIBAOZHICHANSHENGZHENDUIMOUYIKANGYUANJUEDINGCUDEKANGTI。RUJIANGDUOZHONGKANGYUANHUOHANYOUDUOGEKANGYUANJUEDINGCUDEKANGYUANZHURUJITI,ZEJIANGYOUDUOXIDEBXIBAOCHANSHENGXIANGYINGDEDUOZHONGKANGTI,ZHEIXIEKANGTIJUNCUNZAIYUMIANYIXUEQINGZHONG。MIANYICEDINGZHONGSUOYONGDEKANGXUEQINGYIBANYONGKANGYUANMIANYITU、YANGHUOMAZHIDE。CHANSHENGKANGTIDEBXIBAOKEZAITIWAIYUFANZHILIQIANGDEZHONGLIUXIBAORONGHECHENGZAJIAOLIUXIBAO。JIANGDANGEZAJIAOLIUXIBAOFENLI,ZAITINEIHUOTIWAIPEIYANGERFENMIDEKANGTIDANKELONGKANGTI(monoclonal antibody,McAbHUOMab)。DANKELONGKANGTIJINZHENDUIYIZHONGKANGYUANJUEDINGCU,JUYOUHENGAODETEYIXING。DANKELONGKANGTITONGCHANGYONGKANGYUANMIANYIXIAOSHUZHIBEI。JIANGMIANYIDEPIXIBAO(HANCHANSHENGKANGTIDEBXIBAO)YUXIAOSHUZHONGLIUXIBAORONGHE,FENLIZAJIAOLIUXIBAO,JIEZHONGYUXIAOSHUFUQIANG,CHANSHENGDEFUSHUIZHONGHANYOUNONGDUHENGAODEDANKELONGKANGTI。

1.3 KANGYUANKANGTIFANYING

1.3.1 KENIXING   KANGYUANYUKANGTIJIEHEXINGCHENGKANGYUANKANGTIFUHEWUDEGUOCHENGSHIYIZHONGDONGTAIPINGHENG,QIFANYINGSHIWEI:Ag+Ab→Ag·Ab。.KANGTIDEQINHELI(affinity)SHIKANGYUANKANGTIJIANDEGUYOUJIEHELI,KEYIPINGHENGCHANGSHUKBIAOSHI:K=[Ag·Ab]/[Ag][Ab]。Ag·AbDEJIELICHENGDUYUKZHIYOUGUAN。GAOQINHELIKANGTIDEKANGYUANJIEHEDIANYUKANGYUANDEJUEDINGCUZAIKONGJIANGOUXINGSHANGFEICHANGSHIHE,LIANGZHEJIEHELAOGU,BUYIJIELI。JIELIHOUDEKANGYUANHUOKANGTIJUNNENGBAOCHIYUANYOUDEJIEGOUHEHUOXING,YINCIKEYONGQINHECENGXIFALAITICHUNKANGYUANHUOKANGTI。ZAIKANGXUEQINGZHONG,TEYIXINGDEIgGKANGTIJINZHANZONGIgGZHONGDEJIXIAOBUFEN。YONGQINHECENGXIFATIQUDETEYIXINGKANGTI,CHENGWEIQINHECENGXICHUNKANGTI,YINGYONGYUMIANYICEDINGZHONGKEDEDAOGENGHAODEXIAOGUO。

任选9场 1.3.2 ZUISHIBILI   ZAIHENGDINGLIANGDEKANGTIZHONGJIARUDIZENGLIANGDEKANGYUANXINGCHENGKANGTIFUHEWU(CHENDIAN)DELIANGJIANTU1-4。QUXIANDEGAOFENGBUFENSHIKANGYUANKANGTIBILIZUIHESHIDEFANWEI,CHENGWEIDENGJIADAI(zone of equivalence)。ZAIDENGJIADAIQIANHOUFENBIEWEIKANGTIGUOSHENGDAIHEKANGYUANGUOSHENGDAI。RUGUOKANGYUANHUOKANGTIJIDUGUOSHENG,ZEWUCHENDIANWUXINGCHENG,ZAIMIANYICEDINGZHONGCHENGWEIDAIXIANXIANG(zone phenomenon)。KANGTIGUOLIANGCHENGWEIQIANDAI(prezone),KANGYUANDIGUOLIANGCHENGWEIHOUDAI(postzone)。ZAIYONGMIANYIXUEFANGFACEDINGKANGYUANSHI,YINGSHIFANYINGXITONGZHONGYOUZUGOUDEKANGTILIANG,FOUZECEDEDELIANGHUIXIAOYUSHIJIHANLIANG,SHENZHICHUXIANJIAYINXING。

1.3.3 TEYIXING   KANGYUANKANGTIDEJIEHESHIZHISHANGZHIFASHENGZAIKANGYUANDEKANGYUANJUEDINGCUYUKANGTIDEKANGYUANJIEHEWEIDIANZHIJIAN。YOUYULIANGZHEZAIHUAXUEJIEGOUHEKONGJIANGOUXINGSHANGCHENGHUBUGUANXI,SUOYIKANGYUANKANGTIFANYINGJUYOUGAODUDETEYIXING。LIRUYIGANBINGDUZHONGDEBIAOMIANKANGYUAN(HBsAg)、eKANGYUAN(HBeAg)HEHEXINKANGTI(HBcAg),SUILAIYUANYUTONGYIBINGDU,DANJINYUQIXIANGYINGDEKANGTIJIEHE,ERBUYULINGWAILIANGZHONGKANGTIFANYING。KANGYUANKANGTIFANYINGDEZHEIZHONGTEYIXINGSHIMIANYICEDINGNENGZAIYIFEICHANGFUZADEDANBAIZHIHUAHEWU(LIRUXUEQING)ZHONGCEDINGMOUYITEDINGDEWUZHI,ERBUXUXIANFENLIDAIJIANWU。

  DANSHIZHEIZHONGTEYIXINGYEBUSHIJUEDUIDE。JIASHILIANGZHONGHUAHEWUYOUZHEBUFENXIANGTONGDEJIEGOU,ZAIKANGYUANKANGTIFANYINGZHONGKECHUXIANJIAOCHAFANYING。LIRU:RONGMAOMOCUXINGXIANJISU(hCG)HEHUANGTISHENGCHENGJISU(LH)JUNYOUαHEβLIANGGEYADANWEIZUCHENG,QIJIEGOUDEBUTONGCHUZAIβYADANWEI,ERLIANGZHEDEαYADANWEISHITONGLEIDE。YONGhCGMIANYIDONGWUSUODEDEKANGXUEQINGZHONGHANYOUKANGα-hCGHEKANGβ-hCGLIANGZHONGKANGTI,KANGα-hCGKANGTIJIANGYULHFASHENGJIAOCHAFANYING。ZAILINCHUANGJIANYANZHONG,RUYONGKANGhCGKANGXUEQINGZUOWEIRENSHENZHENDUANSHIJIJIANDINGNIAOYEZHONGhCG,ZHINENGYONGYUhCGNONGDUJIAOGAODESHIYAN,FOUZEFUNVSHENGLIXINGPAIXIERUNIAOYEZHONGDEWEILIANGLHJIANGYUZHIFASHENGJIAOCHAFANYING。YINCIZAIZUOWEIZAOYUNZHENDUAN(MINGANDUYINGDADAO50mIu/mlhCG)DESHIJIZHONGBIXUYINGYONGZHIDUIhCGTEYIDEKANGβ-hCG,YIBIMIANYUQITAJISUDEJIAOCHAFANYINGDEFASHENG。

1.3.4 MINGANXING   ZAICEDINGXUEQINGZHONGMOUYIWUZHIDEHANLIANGSHI,HUAXUEBISEFADEMINGANDUWEImg/mlSHUIPING,MEIFANYINGCEDINGFADEMINGANDUYUEWEI5~10μg/ml,MIANYICEDINGZHONGNINGJIAOKUOSANFAHEZHUODUFADEMINGANDUYUMEIFANYINGFAXIANGFANG。BIAOJIDEMIANYICEDINGDEMINGANDUKETIGAOSHUQIANBEI,DAng/mlSHUIPING。LIRU,YONGFANGSHEMIANYICEDINGFAHUOMEIMIANYICEDINGFACEDINGHBsAg,QIMINGANDUKEDA0.1ng/ml。

1.4 MIANYICEDINGZAILINCHUANGJIANYANZHONGDEYINGYONG

  YOUYUGEZHONGKANGYUANCHENGFEN,BAOKUOXIAOFENZIDEBANKANGYUAN,JUNKEYONGYIZHIBEITEYIXINGDEKANGXUEQINGHUODANKELONGKANGTI,LIYONGCIKANGTIZUOWEISHIJIJIUKEJIANCEBIAOBENZHONGXIANGYINGDEKANGYUAN,YINCIMIANYICEDINGDEYINGYONGFANWEIJIGUANG,ZAILINCHUANGJIANYANZHONGKEYONGYUCEDING:

任选9场     1) TIYEZHONGDEGEZHONGDANBAIZHI,BAOKUOHANLIANGJISHAODEDANBAIZHIRUJIATAIDANBAIDENG。

    2) JISU,BAOKUOXIAOFENZILIANGDEZAITIJISUDENG。

任选9场     3) KANGSHENGSUHEYAOWU。

    4) BINGYUANTIKANGYUAN,HBsAg、HBeAgDENG。

任选9场     5) LINGWAI,YEKELIYONGCHUNHUADEKANGYUANJIANCEBIAOBENZHONGDEKANGTI,LIRUKANG-HBsDENG。

1.5. BIAOJIDEMIANYICEDING

  RUSHANGSUOSHU,MIANYICEDINGSHIYIZHONGHENMINGANDECEDINGFANGFA,KANGYUANKANGTIFANYINGHOUZHIJIECEDINGXINGCHENGDECHENDIANHUOZHUODU,MINGANDUKEDA5~10μg/ml,DANZAILINCHUANGJIANYANZHONG,MOUXIEDAICEWUZAIBIAOBENZHONGDEHANLIANGYUANDIYUZHEIYISHUIPING,YINCIYAOXUNZHAOZENGJIAMINGANDUDEFANGFA。BIAOJIDEMIANYICEDINGSHIJIANGJIANCESHIJIZHONGDEKANGYUANHUOKANGTIYONGKEWEILIANGCEDINGDEWUZHIJIAYIBIAOJI,TONGGUOCEDINGBIAOJIWULAITIGAOMINGANDU。ZAIFANGSHEMIANYICEDINGHEMEIMIANYICEDINGZHONG,BIAOJIWUFENBIEWEIFANGSHEXINGHESUHEMEI,ZUIHOUYONGCEDINGFANGSHEXINGHEMEIHUOLILAIJISUANDAIJIANWUDELIANG,MINGANDUKEBIZHIJIECEDINGCHENDIANWUTIGAOSHUBAIZHISHUQIANBEI。ZAIBIAOJIMIANYICEDINGZHONG,YIBANJIARUGUOLIANGDEBIAOJISHIJIYIBAOZHENGYUDAICEWUCHEDIFANYING。YIBIAOJIKANGTI(Ab※)JIANCEKANGYUAN(Ag)WEILI,FANYINGSHIRUXIA:Ag+ Ab※ → AgAb※+ Ab※。ZAIFANYINGCHANWUZHONGYOUYUAgJIEHEDEAb※HEYOULIHEAb※,RUBUJIANGLIANGZHEFENLIERCEDINGBIAOJIWU,CEDEDEJIEGUOJIANGWEILIANGZHEZHIHE。YINCI,YOULIBIAOJIWUYUJIEHEBIAOJIWUDEFENLISHIBIAOJIMIANYICEDINGZHONGDEZHONGYAOBUZHOU。KECAIYONGDUOZHONGSHOUDUAN,GUXIANGZAITISHIQIZHONGZHIYI。RUJIANGKANGYUANHUOKANGTIBAOBEIZAIGUXIANGZAITISHANG,RANHOUZAIYUBIAOJIDEKANGYUANHUOKANGTIZHIJIEFANYING,JIEHEDEBIAOJIWUBEIGUDINGZAIZAITISHANG,ERYOULIDEBIAOJIWULIUYURONGYEZHONG。ZHEIYANGKEYITONGGUOXIDIJIANGYOULIDEAb※CHUQU,JIEHEBIAOJIWUDECEDINGKEZAIGUXIANGSHANGJINXING。

任选9场 1.6.MEIMIANYICEDING

  MEIMIANYICEDING(enzyme immunoassay)KEFENWEIJUNXIANG(homogenous)HEFEIJUNXIANG(heterogenous)LIANGZHONGLEIXING。ZAIJUNXIANGEIAZHONGKEBUXUJINXINGYOULIDEHEJIEHEDEBIAOJIWUDEFENLIERZHIJIECEDINGBIAOJIWU。LIRUZAIMOUZHONGTIAOJIANXIA,KANGYUANKANGTIFANYINGHOUXINGCHENGDEMEIBIAOJIKANGYUANKANGTIFUHEWUZHONGDEMEISHIQUQIDUIDIWUZUOYONGDEHUOLI,YINERCECHUDEMEIHUOLIZHIJIEFANYINGYOULIDEMEIBIAOJIWU。JUNXIANGEIAZAILINCHUANGJIANYANZHONGJIAOSHAOYINGYONG。FEIJUNXIANGEIAXUXIANJINXINGYOULIDEHEJIEHEDEBIAOJIWUDEFENLI。RUQIANSUOSHU,GUXIANGZAITIKEYONGZUOYIZHONGFENLISHOUDUAN。ZHEIZHONGGUXIANGMEIMIANYICEDINGFANGFAZAI1971NIANZUICHUJIANLISHICHENGWEIMEILIANMIANYIXIFUJICEDING(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay),JIANCHENGELISA,ZAIGUONEIYOUYIZUOMEILIANMIANYIXIFUSHIYANHUOMEIBIAO,YIXIYONG。

关注

地址:南京市江宁区诚信大道885号诚信大厦1003室
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任选9场 订购邮箱:njkmlbio@163.com 技术邮箱:15295710888@163.com

QUANGUOZIXUNREXIAN:

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